### 謝辞・参考文献

本論文をまとめるにあたっては，○氏のご協力をいただきました．水中におけるロボット機構の開発にあたってはニイガタ株式会社渡辺 学社長，浅野敏行様のご協力を頂きました．実験用ファントムの開発にあたってはOST株式会社の池田芳則様，柳 光江様のご協力を頂きました．超音波診断装置を本システムに実装するにあたっては，(株)日立アロカメディカルのご協力を頂きました．本研究は，文部科学省科学技術振興調整費「システム疾患生命科学による先端医療技術開発拠点(TSBMI)」，グローバルＣＯＥプログラム「機械システム・イノベーション」による支援を受けました．ここに謝意を表します．

Acknowledgements
The present study was supported by Manabu Watanabe, Toshiyuki Asano (Niigata Corporation), the Translational Systems Biology and Medicine Initiative (TSBMI) and by the Global Center of Excellence for Mechanical Systems Innovation (GMSI) through the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan.

Abstract

(コラム)

わたしが参考文献を読んでそこから着想を得るときにおこなっているやり方は、まずは想像力を最大限にたくましくしながら、図が何を言おうとしているかを感じて、つぎに説得力のあるストーリーを考えることです。最初に文章から読まないのがミソです、、、

①まず、文章は読まずに図がなにを言おうとしているのかを感じて、自分にとって納得のゆくストーリーを展開してみる。このとき、想像力を最大限にたくましくする。
②つぎに図の説明に該当する部分の文章をよむ。自分の想像したものと論文の文章のどこが同じで、どこが異なっているかを答えあわせのつもりでチェックする。
③②で想像と異なっているところが、案外、革新的なアイディアの着想につながることがあります（文章から呼んでしまうと、このプロセスがなくなって、着想を得る貴重な機会を逸してしまいます）。

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jjspe/84/3/84_243/_pdf

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胎児の心臓病、ＡＩで発見　理研、超音波画像使い新技術
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ＨＩＦＵをもちいた診断・治療ロボットに関する研究

FUTURAプロジェクト
https://marcomuraresearch.wordpress.com/2015/08/26/the-futura-project-an-innovative-multi-robotic-platform-for-non-invasive-interventions/

A. Cafarelli, M. Mura, A. Diodato, A. Schiappacasse, M. Santoro, G. Ciuti, A computer-assisted robotic platform for Focused Ultrasound
Surgery: assessment of high intensity focused ultrasound delivery

Chanel, Laure-Anais ; ICube, Université de Strasbourg-CNRS, 67091, France ; Nageotte, Florent ; Vappou, Jonathan ; Luo, Jianwen more authors, Robotized High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) system for treatment of mobile organs using motion tracking by ultrasound imaging: An in vitro study
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=7318917

Selene Tognarelli, Gastone Ciuti, Alessandro Diodato, Andrea Cafarelli, and Arianna Menciassi, Robotic Platform for High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Surgery Under Ultrasound Tracking: The FUTURA Platform, JMRR Special Issue on CRAS 2015.
http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S2424905X17400104
FUTURA is a European seventh research framework programme project aimed at creating an innovative platform for Focused Ultrasound Surgery (FUS). Merging robotics together with noninvasive ultrasound monitoring and therapy has the goal to improve flexibility, precision and accuracy of the intervention, thus enabling a large use of FUS for the treatment of different pathologies. The FUTURA platform, based on FUS therapy under US tracking, has been set up with the first clinical target of kidney cancer treatment. Experiments for assessing the accuracy of the FUS delivery with the FUTURA platform have been carried out under in vitro static conditions and presented here as preliminary outcomes of this study.

HIstotripsy:

Cainらは生体組織を乳化させることが可能なHIstotripsy技術を開発している。

Histotripsy Beyond the Intrinsic Cavitation Threshold Using Very Short Ultrasound Pulses: Microtripsy, Lin, Kuang-Wei; Kim, Yohan; Maxwell, Adam D.; Wang, Tzu-Yin; Hall, Timothy L.; Xu, Zhen; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Cain, Charles A., IEEE T-UFFC, Vol 61, Iss 2, pp 251-265 (2014).

Triggered HIFU

S. UmemuraらはHistotripsyの概念を進化させ，物理的作用に加えて科学的および熱的効果を総合したTriggered HIFUの概念を提案している。

HIFUに関する研究

http://www.fusfoundation.org/images/pdf/GenVaReprint_8pg.pdf

Kazushi Numata, Advances in ultrasound systems for hepatic lesions in Japan, Journal of Medical Ultrasonics, July 2015, Volume 42, Issue 3, pp 297-301.

http://www.showa-u.ac.jp/topics/2012/20120523_000.html

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2879431/

LIFUに関する研究
A review of low-intensity focused ultrasound pulsation
http://www.brainstimjrnl.com/article/S1935-861X(11)00049-0/abstract

CMUT

MR compatible positioning device for guiding a focused ultrasound system for the treatment of brain deseases
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A Prototype MR Compatible Positioning Device for Guiding a Focused Ultrasound System for the Treatment of Abdominal and Thyroid Cancer
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ナノマシーンと強力集束超音波治療の融合

ナノマシンによる治療という，SF映画の世界が現実になりつつある。

http://www.ampo.jp/movies/vol59

Optimal synthesis of a spherical parallel mechanism for medical application
This paper introduces the design and the optimization of a probe holder robot for tele-echography applications. To define its kinematic architecture, an approach based on motion capture of an expert's gestures during ultrasound examinations was proposed. The medical gestures analyzed consisted of ultrasound probe movements and were used to characterize the kinematic specifications of the proposed manipulator. The selected architecture was a Spherical Parallel Mechanism (SPM) with 3 degrees of freedom (DoF) and its optimal synthesis was performed using real-coded Genetic Algorithms (GA). The optimization criteria and constraints were established thanks to the collaboration of medical experts and were successively formulated and solved using mono-objective and multi-objective functions.
http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9298501

C Nadeau, H Ren, A Krupa, P Dupont, "Intensity-Based Visual Servoing for Instrument and Tissue Tracking in 3D Ultrasound Volumes," in IEEE Transactions on　Automation Science and Engineering,, pp.1-5, 2014.
This paper presents a three dimensional ultrasound (3DUS)-based visual servoing technique for intraoperative tracking of the motion of both surgical instruments and tissue targets. In the proposed approach, visual servoing techniques are used to control the position of a virtual ultrasound probe so as to keep a target centered within the virtual probe's field-of-view. Multiple virtual probes can be servoed in parallel to provide simultaneous tracking of instruments and tissue. The technique is developed in the context of robotic beating-heart intracardiac surgery in which the goal of tracking is to both provide guidance to the operator as well as to provide the means to automate the surgical procedure. To deal with the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the 3DUS volumes, an intensity-based method is proposed that requires no primitive extraction or image segmentation since it directly utilizes the image intensity information as a visual feature. This approach is computationally efficient and can be applied to a wide range of tissue types and medical instruments. This paper presents the first validation of these techniques through offline robot and tissue tracking using actual in vivo cardiac volume sequences from a robotic beating-heart surgery.

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インピーダンス・パラメータを調整することで振動抑制を試みている．

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{M.Salerno, T.Mazzocchi, T.Ranzani, F.Mulana, P.Dario, and A.Menciassi},
Safety systems in magnetically driven wireless capsule endoscopy,''
\newblock {\it Proc. of 2013 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intelligent Robots and Systems\rm},
pp.3090-3095, 2013.
\label{2013IROS:MSalerno}
http://vigir.missouri.edu/~gdesouza/Research/Conference_CDs/IEEE_IROS_2013/media/files/2192.pdf

Abou El Kalam, A., Ferreira, A., Kratz, F.,"Bilateral Teleoperation System Using QoS and Secure Communication Networks for Telemedicine Applications," IEEE Systems Journal, Vol.99, pp.1-12, 2005.

The next generation of telesurgical robotics systems presents significant challenges related to network performance and data security. It is known that packet transmission in wide area networks is a complex stochastic process; thus, low bandwidth as well as high delay, jitter, and packet loss will greatly affect the quality of service (QoS) of teleoperation control, which is unacceptable in this kind of sensitive application.

（力センサの利用）
A safety system, able to monitor pressure with patient abdomen, has been designed, characterized, and integrated with a magnetically driven WCE locomotion platform. New technologies, such as smart textiles, have been employed as sensible element. The proposed system showed promising results in controlling the pressure exerted on the abdomen respecting safety limits and increasing the efficiency and range of locomotion.

\bibitem{2013IROS:TEssomba}
T Essomba, MA Laribi, L Nouaille, S Zeghloul, "A specific performances comparative study of two spherical robots for tele-echography application," in Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 2014.
http://pic.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/04/06/0954406214530598.abstract

Essomba\cite{2013IROS:TEssomba}らは超音波診断の際の医師のジェスチャを解析し，2つの機構モジュールからなる仕様を策定した．2つの機構モジュールとは，球面状のRCM（Remote Center of Motion）機構による姿勢モジュールと並進モジュールである．

In this paper, two kinematic structures with optimized spherical wrist modules are proposed for the practice of tele-echography through a new slave holder robot for a remote ultrasound diagnostic application. The medical gestures, performed during an ultrasound examination, are analyzed using two different techniques. The results are used in the definition of the robot kinematic structure specifications. The proposed medical robot is formed by two modules, a spherical displacement orientation module and a translation module, to control the interaction force between the probe and the patient. Multicriteria optimization is proposed and is applied to two spherical structures: one serial and one parallel. Workspace size and kinematic performance, in addition to the index of compactness of the manipulator, are considered in the optimization. The efficiency of the optimized kinematic structures across their workspace is studied and compared to determine which one is more adapted to the tele-echography application.

Hug, J., Brechb¨uhler, C., Sz´ekely, G.: Model-based initialisation for segmentation.
In: Vernon, D. (ed.) ECCV 2000. LNCS, vol. 1843, pp. 290–306. Springer, Heidelberg
(2000).
ftp://oenone-v06.ee.ethz.ch/publications/proceedings/eth_biwi_00197.pdf

\bibitem{IROS2014:LZhang}

L.Zhang , S.Lee, G.Yang, and G.P.Mylonas, \emph{Semi-Autonomous Navigation for Robot Assisted Tele-Echography using Generalized Shape Models and Co-Registered RGB-D cameras}, {\it in Proc. of 2014 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intelligent Robotics and Systems}, pp.3496-3502, 2014.

Zhang, et al. proposes a 3D statistical shape model of the customized patient model for tele-ecography. The generated patient model can be updated and adaptively fitted to the patient to generate a trajectory to navigate a robotic arm for the ultrasound examination.

Robotic Ultrasound Systems in Medicine
Article · Mar 2013 · IEEE transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control
Alan M. Priester Alan M. Priester   Shyam Natarajan Shyam Natarajan   Martin O. Culjat Martin O. Culjat

\bibitem{2007KKataoka}

\bibitem{2008TakumisaToRobotNoRikigaku:SArimoto}

\bibitem{ASAKURA1992:NPS}
N.P.スー, 畑村洋太郎, ”設計の原理－創造的機械設計論－,”朝倉書店, 1992.

\bibitem{IROS2009:NKoizumi}
N.~Koizumi, J.~Seo, Y.~Suzuki, D.~Lee, Kohei Ota, A.Nomiya, S.Yoshizawa, K.Yoshinaka, N.Sugita, H.Homma, Y.Matsumoto, and M.~Mitsuishi, \emph{A control framework for the non-invasive ultrasound theragnostic system}, {\it in Proc. of 2009 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intelligent Robotics and Systems}, pp.4511-4516, 2009.

\bibitem{JRSJ2013:TNatsume}

\bibitem{IEEETransBE2006:MJHLum}
M.J.H.~Lum, J.~Rosen, M.N.~Sinanan, and B.~Hannaford, \emph{Kinematic optimization of serial and parallel spherical mechanism for a minimally invasive surgical robot}, {\it in IEEE Trans. on Biomedical Engineering}, vol.53, pp.1440-1445, 2006.

\bibitem{A Georgia Tech professor of robotics argues automation is still creating more jobs than it destroys}

\bibitem{2013シャロン・バーチュ・マグレイン:異端の統計学ベイズ}
シャロン・バーチュ・マグレイン, 冨永 星（訳）, "異端の統計学ベイズ," 草思社, 2013.
ベイズ理論の医用応用について，さまざまな示唆を与えてくれる．

\bibitem{A Georgia Tech professor of robotics argues automation is still creating more jobs than it destroys}
\bibitem{2006Bayesian:YMotomura}

\bibitem{2009涌井良幸:道具としてのベイズ統計}

あらたなデータを取得することで標準偏差が小さくなり，信頼度が高められる（pp.113）．すなわち，相関係数も高められる．

\bibitem{2013:JEFjellin}
Jørgen Enger Fjellin, \emph{Design of a bilateral master-slave system with haptic feedback for ultrasound examinations}, 2013.
https://www.duo.uio.no/handle/10852/37456

\bibitem{IEEETransBE2006:MJHLum}
N.~Padoy　and G.D.~Hager, \emph{3D Thread Tracking for Robotic Assistance in Tele-surgery}, {\it in Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)}, 2011.

\bibitem{OST:KidneyPhantom}
http://www.ost-jp.com/%E6%B3%8C%E5%B0%BF%E5%99%A8%E9%A0%98%E5%9F%9F%E7%94%A8%E3%83%95%E3%82%A1%E3%83%B3%E3%83%88%E3%83%A0/

\bibitem{AIST:AIST/HQL人体寸法・形状データベース2003}
https://www.dh.aist.go.jp/database/fbodyDB/

\bibitem{JACVSD}
http://jcvsd.umin.jp/

ソフトウェア・プロダクト・ライン開発手法：
http://www.kumikomi.net/archives/2012/01/ep01spl3.php?page=3

\bibitem{1998GakushuToNeuralNetwork:IKumazawa}

http://www.innervision.co.jp/01inner/2010/pdf/iv1011_03.pdf

#### 第3章 超音波画像による生体患部追従の問題点と解決策

\bibitem{ICRA2014:NKoizumi}
N.~Koizumi, T.~Funamoto, J.~Seo, D.~Lee, H.~Tsukihara, A.~Nomiya, T.~Azuma, K.~Yoshinaka, N.~Sugita, H.~Homma, Y.~Matsumoto, and M.~Mitsuishi, \emph{A novel robust template matching method to track and follow body targets for NIUTS}, {\it in Proc. of 2014 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Robotics and Automation}, pp.1929-1936, 2014.

\bibitem{2007nano-scale-servo:TYamaguchi}

\bibitem{1998MATLABniyoru-seigyoriron-no-kiso:KNonami}

\bibitem{各種合成樹脂素材の音響特性}
http://www.tech.nite.go.jp/human/jp/pdf/2nddevelop/echo.pdf

\bibitem{2008SeimitsuIchigime:AMatsubara}

Robotic fish -Design and characterization of an interactive iDevice-Controlled robotic fish for informal science education-
Robotics and Automation magazine, vol.22, no.1, pp.86-96, 2015.

http://ir.nul.nagoya-u.ac.jp/jspui/handle/2237/6437

Bo Yang, Member, IEEE, Chao Liu, Senior Member, IEEE, Philippe Poignet, Wenfeng Zheng, and
Shan Liu, Motion Prediction Using Dual Kalman Filter for Robust Beating
Heart Tracking
10.1109/EMBC.2015.7319485

\bibitem{リアルタイム組込みOS:Qing Li}
Qing Li, "リアルタイム組込みOS," 翔泳社, 2005.

リアルタイム組込みOSの概念や機能についてわかりやすく解説している．

\bibitem{AJN2001:D.Cordes}
D.Cordes, V.M.Haughton, K.Arfanakis, J.D.Carew, P.A.Turski, C.H.Moritz, M.A.Quigley and M.E.Meyerand, "Frequencies contributing to functional connectivity in the cerebral cortex in "resting-state" data.," {\it in Am. J. Neuroradiol.}, vol. 22, no.7, 2001, pp 1326-1333.

\bibitem{2008SeimitsuIchigime:AMatsubara}

\bibitem{2013HMita}

\bibitem{2012YMori}

Variable Joint-Velocity Limits of Redundant Robot Manipulators Handled by Quadratic Programming
Zhijun Zhang, Yunong Zhang
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics (Impact Factor: 3.14). 01/2013; 18(2):674-686. DOI: 10.1109/TMECH.2011.2181977
ABSTRACT In this paper, a variable joint-velocity limits (VJVL)-constrained minimum-velocity-norm (MVN) scheme (termed VJVL-constrained MVN scheme) is proposed and investigated for redundant manipulators, i.e., the JVL change with the end-effector and joints movement. The scheme is then formulated as a quadratic program (QP), which is subject to an equality constraint and a bound constraint, and such a QP problem is solved by a discrete QP solver, i.e., a numerical algorithm. In addition, experimental results performed on a planar six degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) push-rod (PR) redundant robot manipulator substantiate the physical realizability and efficacy of such a VJVL-constrained MVN scheme and the corresponding discrete QP solver. Furthermore, the position-error analyses verify the accuracy of the proposed scheme on redundant manipulators.

\bibitem{IJMRCAS14:MAzizian}
M Azizian, N Najmaei, M Khoshnam, R Patel, Visual servoing in medical robotics: a survey. Part II: tomographic imaging modalities–techniques and applications, Int J Med Robot Comput Assist Surg (IJMRCAS), 2014
Intraoperative application of tomographic imaging techniques provides a means of visual servoing for objects beneath the surface of organs. The focus of this survey is on therapeutic and diagnostic medical applications where tomographic ...

（結石検出アルゴリズムに関する関連研究）
K Viswanath, R Gunasundari, Analysis and Implementation of Kidney Stone Detection by Reaction Diffusion Level Set Segmentation using Xilinx System Generator on FPGA

The detection of kidney stones using Ultrasound imaging is a highly challenging task as they are of low contrast and contains speckle noise. This challenge is overcome by employing suitable image processing techniques. The ultrasound image is first preprocessed to get rid of speckle noise using the image restoration process. The restored image is smoothened using Gabor filter and the subsequent image is enhanced by histogram equalization. The preprocessed image is achieved with level set segmentation to detect the stone region. Segmentation process is employed twice for getting better results, first to segment kidney portion and then to segment the stone portion respectively. In this work, the level set segmentation uses two terms namely momentum and resilient propagation (Rprop) to detect the stone portion. After segmentation, the extracted region of the kidney stone is given to Symlets, Biorthogonal (bio3.7, bio3.9 & bio4.4) and Daubechies lifting scheme wavelet subbands to extract energy levels. These energy levels provide evidence about presence of stone, by comparing them with that of the normal energy levels. They are trained by Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Back Propagation (BP) ANN to classify and its type of stone with an accuracy of 98.8%. The prosed work is designed and real time implemented on both Filed Programmable Gate Array Vertex-2Pro FPGA using Xilinx System Generator (XSG) Verilog and Matlab2012a.

K Viswanath, R Gunasundari, VLSI Implementation and Analysis of Kidney Stone Detection from Ultrasound Image by Level Set Segmentation and MLP-BP ANN Classification, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Springer, 2016
Abstract In recent years, there is an increase in the count of individuals suffering from kidney abnormalities. Kidney stone prevalence has increased both in men and women, across all age groups, racial/ethnic groups. According to the recent statisticscal report, the vulnerability of kidney stone abnormality even surpasses the effects of several chronic diseases, including diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. This inflicts a need for early detection and accurate diagnosis of kidney stones. Urologists undergo enormous stress at the time of surgery related to stone removal in order to precisely locate the stones, which may be scattered. Kidney abnormality may also indicate the formation of stones, cysts, cancerous cells, and blockage of urine, etc. Currently available scanning approaches in hospitals such as Ultrasound (US) imaging, MRI, and CT scanners, do not help in easy and quick diagnosis of the minute stones in the initial stage, as well as multiple stones present in the scanned images due to low contrast and speckle noise. Thus, to remove speckle noise in ultrasound images preprocessing is applied. Reaction and diffusion (RD) level set segmentation is applied two times, first to the segment kidney portion and second to segment the stone portion. The extracted region of the kidney stone after segmentation is applied with Symlets, Biorthogonal, and Daubechies lifting scheme wavelet subbands with higher vanishing moments to extract energy levels. These energy levels give an indication about the presence of stone, which significantly vary from that of normal energy level. These energy levels are trained by multilayer perceptron (MLP) and back propagation (BP) ANN to identify the type of stone with an accuracy of 97.8 % and real time implementation is done using Verilog on Vertex-2Pro FPGA.

\bibitem{3DSlicer}
http://www.slicer.org/
http://www.mediotech.co.jp/3dslicer.html

\bibitem{CVPR:TKaneko}
T.Kaneko and O.Hori, \emph{Feature Selection for Reliable Tracking using Template Matching}, {\it in Proc. of 2003 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR2003)}, pp.796-802, 2003.
http://nguyendangbinh.org/Proceedings/CVPR/2003/pdffiles/papers/P02_16.pdf

SONY スペクトラムフローサイトメトリー：
http://www.sony.co.jp/SonyInfo/News/Press/201211/12-173/

そのほか

(内臓脂肪計測)
[1] Yu Chiba, et al., Relationship between Visceral Fat and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: The Tanno and Sobetsu Study, Hypertension Research (2007) 30, 229–236.
http://www.nature.com/hr/journal/v30/n3/full/hr200732a.html

[2] 田所直子ほか, 腹部超音波法による内臓脂肪蓄積量の推定, 肥満研究, 2002.
http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10012281189

Visceral fat distance (VFD) was measured between the peritoneum and the lumber spine. 腹部の体軸断面の構造を認識し，内臓脂肪量を評価している。

Evaluation of conoscopic holography for estimating tumor resection cavities in model-based image-guided neurosurgery
Amber L. Simpson, Kay Sun, Thomas S. Pheiffer, D. Caleb Rucker, Allen K. Sills, Reid C. Thompson, and Michael I. Miga, Vanderbilt University and Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Volume 61, Issue 6, Page: 1143-1154

A microwave imaging system for real-time 3-D imaging of differential temperature has been developed for the monitoring and feedback of thermal therapy systems. Design parameters are constrained by features of a prototype-focused microwave thermal therapy system for the breast, operating at 915 MHz. Real-time imaging is accomplished with a precomputed linear inverse scattering solution combined with continuous vector network analyzer (VNA) measurements of a 36-antenna, HFSS-modeled, cylindrical cavity. Volumetric images of differential change of dielectric constant due to temperature are formed with a refresh rate as fast as 1 frame/s and 1  $^circ$C resolution. Procedures for data segmentation and postprocessed S-parameter error-correction are developed. Antenna pair VNA calibration is accelerated by using the cavity as the unknown thru standard. The device is tested on water targets and a simple breast phantom. Differentially heated targets are successfully imaged in cluttered environments. The rate of change of scattering contrast magnitude correlates 1:1 with target temperature.

Nanometals and Complexes in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy
S Bashir, S Palakurthi, HC Zhou, J Liu - Handbook of Metallonutraceuticals, 2014

187ページに本研究の引用

The process of fabrication of a nanotheranostic system has multiple components, with each components having unique properties and advantages. For example, a signal emitter emits a signal upon excitation by external source. The therapeutic moiety can be a drug,, gene, or nucleic acid, such as small interfering RNA. The nanocarrier is a polymetric carrier capable of carrying a high drug payload.

The targeting ligand  is the entity that can blind to a disease marker with high specificity, so as to deliver the entire system to the target cell. The response of a signal emitter can be captured in real time y non-invasive imaging techniques, such as MRI, CT, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, and ultrasound.

Alireza Abbasi-Moshaii, Farshid Najafi, (2014) "A review of robotic mechanisms for ultrasound examinations", Industrial Robot: An International Journal, Vol. 41 Iss: 4

This paper discusses the concept of robotic ultrasound imaging, and classifies the mechanisms in terms of their power trains used for robotic and haptic devices which assist physicians to perform ultrasound imaging on patients. A set of mechanical characteristics which together can generate a superior design is also presented.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3126059/

\bibitem{CVPR:TKaneko}
M.Balicki, A.Uneri, I.Iordachita, J.Handa, P.Gehlbach, and R.Taylor, \emph{Micro-force sensing in robot assisted membrane peeling for vitreoretinal surgery}, {\it in Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv.}, vol.13, pp.303-310, 2010.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20879413
１．トレーニングシステムにおける有用性．
２．力－音変換の有用性．noisyな環境に対する対応を考慮すべき．

M.P.Kummer, J.J.Abbott, B.E.Kratochvil, R.Borer, A.Sengul, and B.J.Nelson,
"OctoMag: An Electromagnetic System for 5-DOF Wireless Micromanipulation",
in IEEE Trans. Robotics, Vol.26, No.6, pp.1006--1017, 2010.

\bibitem{2007nano-scale-servo:TYamaguchi}

『素人発想，玄人実行』のすすめ

Prof. Paolo Dario's works are introduced on BBC news.
http://m.bbc.co.uk/news/health-26036429

http://www.toshiba-medical.co.jp/tmd/library/lecture/sono/swf/top_swf.html

http://www.t-net.ne.jp/~kondoy/lecture/index.html

http://nv-med.mtpro.jp/jsrt/pdf/2000/56_10/05.pdf

グリーンの公式の定理の理解に役立つ，

ガウスの定理とストークの定理の理解に役立つ，そのほか，ベクトル公式など

http://ir.nul.nagoya-u.ac.jp/jspui/bitstream/2237/6617/1/hodaka.pdf

System Identification Toolboxの使い方
http://www.mathworks.co.jp/jp/products/sysid/

コンピュータビジョンのための画像の特徴点の抽出
http://www.suri.it.okayama-u.ac.jp/~kanatani/papers/harris.pdf

XperiaTM SO-01Bの製品アップデート情報
http://www.nttdocomo.co.jp/support/utilization/product_update/list/so01b/i

How To: Install Flash 10.1 On Android 2.1 Eclair Devices

ステッピングモータで位置制御だけでなくトルク制御も
http://www.sotuu.net/cosmotechs/cthd.html?q=611m5kkFvalIr4xOepf6AO

http://japan.gehealthcare.com/cwcjapan/static/cardiology/magazine_lecture/nurse/nurse_05.html

http://www.zmp.co.jp/humansensingpackage.html

https://ds-pharma.jp/gakujutsu/contents/undouki_spine/seminar/se05/movie/02/presenter_player.html#3

http://www.barrierfree.gr.jp/cogsci/note2007/04.pdf

http://www3.kmu.ac.jp/medchem/index2.html

www.oit.ac.jp/bme/~akazawa/bitext/S4-1.pdf

http://www.braincampaign.org/Common/Docs/Files/2778/jchap5.pdf

http://www.tvk.ne.jp/~junkamo/new_page_253.htm

http://www.neurology-jp.org/Journal/public_pdf/050060371.pdf

http://www.jacsri.jp/JACSRI/taste/taste.html

http://www.jst.go.jp/kisoken/presto/research_area/ongoing/103koujyousei.html

http://www.dspbio.co.jp/pdf/square2/neuron.pdf

そのメカニズム解析
http://ir.kagoshima-u.ac.jp/bitstream/10232/11832/1/19791404seika.pdf

http://www.nikkei.com/article/DGKDZO55472010V20C13A5MZ9000/

JR Maglev

Bioengineering Seminar

http://www.forte-science.co.jp/news/articles/20130328/editorial_snapshot_part23.cfm?utm_source=edm&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=20130328

http://www.engineer.or.jp/c_categories/index02021.html

２次元フーリエ変換の動作がよくわかる：
２次元フーリエ変換全般の解説：

フーリエ変換の解説：
http://www.ic.is.tohoku.ac.jp/~swk/lecture/yaruodsp/fs.html

http://www.ice.tohtech.ac.jp/~nakagawa/laplacetrans/convolution1.htm

http://www.maroon.dti.ne.jp/koten-kairo/works/fft/intro4.html

バネ・マス・ダンパ系，伝達関数表現と状態方程式表現の関係：
http://www-b2.is.tokushima-u.ac.jp/1997/fujita/seigyo.html

http://mech.u-fukui.ac.jp/~Kawa-Lab/lecture/modern/chap8f.pdf

http://imagingsolution.blog107.fc2.com/blog-entry-88.html

http://www1.accsnet.ne.jp/~aml00731/kalman.pdf

お手軽カルマンフィルタ：
http://blog.livedoor.jp/k_yon/archives/52309233.html

http://www.seikatsusyukanbyo.com/calendar/2012/002010.php

ファイル処理，名簿をつくろう：

Win32APIの使い方：
http://www.geocities.jp/ky_webid/win32c/index.html

http://yohshiy.blog.fc2.com/blog-entry-175.html
かなり快適になった．ベイズの定理は偉大．

Sono jelly

https://www3.toshiba.co.jp/tmeds/ultrasound/

Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine
http://www.aium.org/

http://www.n-denkei.co.jp/kigyo/kigyo_kantou.html#0
〒110-0005 東京都台東区上野5-14-1 NDビル
Tel. (03)3834-6321 Fax. (03)3836-3237
E-mail : tokyo-i@n-denkei.co.jp〈民間〉
E-mail : tokyo-w@n-denkei.co.jp〈学校・官庁〉

アドバネットの商品

モーションコントロールボード
VPG86
マニュアル：
http://www.niuts.sakura.ne.jp/nkoizumi/VPG-86_GM01%20.pdf

omronの近接センサ
E2S-W23B
http://www.fa.omron.co.jp/product/item/e2s_7055f/

3Dマウス Space Navigator ドライバ：
http://www.3dconnexion.jp/service/drivers.html
（無線のバージョンも出たようだ，，，）
SDK：

まごの手スイッチ（2.5m）（ホワイト） WH2913PK
http://ctlg.panasonic.com/jp/tap/extension-cord/WH2913PK.html

トーヨーオートポンプTP-10R
http://tp-miyake.co.jp/pro_po-10R.html

http://www.htkgp.co.jp/hwatch/

EUB6500
http://www.us-tip.com/serv1.php?type=db1&dbs=Hi+Vision%99+6500+-+EUB-6500

E&I社製2100L広帯域RFパワーアンプ
http://www.rfpower.jp/index_products.html

http://www.editage.jp/

http://kenkyuukai.m3.com/event/event_calendar.asp

open cv:
Extracted to
C:\ocv

set path=C:\ocv\opencv\build\x86\vc10\bin;%PATH%
set path=C:\ocv\opencv\build\x64\vc10\bin;%PATH%

ImageJ
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/ImageJ

CUDA Toolkit:
https://developer.nvidia.com/cuda-toolkit

フリーのDICOM Viewer
NCC-CIR Viewer
http://cir.ncc.go.jp/jp/jdwncv.html

はんだごて：
https://www.hakko.com/japan/products/hakko_fx888d.html

・FAコントローラ
EWS-X035Q
ハイグレードCD PCI Expressスロット搭載モデル
http://www.interface.co.jp/catalog/prdc.asp?name=ews-x035q
※この製品に、Windows XP系組込OSである、
Windows Embedded Standard 2009をインストールするカスタマイズを

・拡張ユニット
EXP-PCI04S(OP)
PCI 4スロットショートサイズ拡張ユニット 光Express転送セット
http://www.interface.co.jp/catalog/prdc.asp?name=exp-pci04s%28op%29

ポケオシ、ポケアナ、ポケデジアナ（日本データシステム）：

ポケオシ（ポケットサイズの1G高速サンプリングオシロスコープ：Pocket size USB digital storage oscilloscope）：
http://www.jds.co.jp/?page_id=178

ポケアナ（36chロジックアナライザ）：
http://www2.elecom.co.jp/products/ULA-4G36-180K.html

ポケデジアナ36（ポケオシとポケアナの組合わせ）
http://www2.elecom.co.jp/products/UDA-1G36S.html

ポスター印刷
TEL:03-3815-3201

さくらインターネット

mendeley:
http://www.mendeley.com/

UNIX入門
http://cmd.misty.ne.jp/basic/index.html

ビャーネ・ストラウストラップ (著), Bjarne Stroustrup (著), 柴田 望洋  (翻訳), プログラミング言語C++第4版, 2015.