謝辞・参考文献

謝辞
 本論文をまとめるにあたっては,○氏のご協力をいただきました.水中におけるロボット機構の開発にあたってはニイガタ株式会社渡辺 学社長,浅野敏行様のご協力を頂きました.実験用ファントムの開発にあたってはOST株式会社の池田芳則様,柳 光江様のご協力を頂きました.超音波診断装置を本システムに実装するにあたっては,(株)日立アロカメディカルのご協力を頂きました.本研究は,文部科学省科学技術振興調整費「システム疾患生命科学による先端医療技術開発拠点(TSBMI)」,グローバルCOEプログラム「機械システム・イノベーション」による支援を受けました.ここに謝意を表します.

Acknowledgements
The present study was supported by Manabu Watanabe, Toshiyuki Asano (Niigata Corporation), the Translational Systems Biology and Medicine Initiative (TSBMI) and by the Global Center of Excellence for Mechanical Systems Innovation (GMSI) through the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan.

参考文献
 Abstract


(コラム)

わたしが参考文献を読んでそこから着想を得るときにおこなっているやり方は、まずは想像力を最大限にたくましくしながら、図が何を言おうとしているかを感じて、つぎに説得力のあるストーリーを考えることです。最初に文章から読まないのがミソです、、、

①まず、文章は読まずに図がなにを言おうとしているのかを感じて、自分にとって納得のゆくストーリーを展開してみる。このとき、想像力を最大限にたくましくする。
②つぎに図の説明に該当する部分の文章をよむ。自分の想像したものと論文の文章のどこが同じで、どこが異なっているかを答えあわせのつもりでチェックする。
③②で想像と異なっているところが、案外、革新的なアイディアの着想につながることがあります(文章から呼んでしまうと、このプロセスがなくなって、着想を得る貴重な機会を逸してしまいます)。

わからないキーワードがあったら、まずはGoogleでキーワードを画像検索しましょう。自分にとって直観的にわかりやすい図をさがしましょう。人間は目から入った情報を文字を介さずそのまま直観的に理解してしまうのがもっとも思考経済の観点からお得です!

並木明夫, 高速視覚フィードバック制御のロボット応用, 精密工学会誌, vo.84, No.3, 2018.
https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jjspe/84/3/84_243/_pdf

\bibitem{IJSS2010:BarysIhnatsenka}
Barys Ihnatsenka and André Pierre Boezaart, "Ultrasound: Basic understanding and learning the language," in International journal of shoulder surgery, vol.4, no.3. pp55-62, 2010
http://www.internationalshoulderjournal.org/article.asp?issn=0973-6042;year=2010;volume=4;issue=3;spage=55;epage=62;aulast=Ihnatsenka

\bibitem{needleHydrophone}
http://www.eastek.co.jp/pages/supersonic_wave_pages/hydrophone_pages/needle_type.html

\bibitem{世界のがん発生率と死亡率}
http://globocan.larc.fr
がんによる死亡者数は世界で年間約820万人であり,今後ますます増加するものと推察される.

\bibitem{尿路結石を防ぐには}
http://www.lares.dti.ne.jp/~obsidian/kesseki.html

尿路結石を防ぐには

食品や飲み物から体内に取り入れられたシュウ酸は、小腸・大腸などの腸管から吸収されて血管に入り、腎臓を経由して尿管の中に出ます。腎臓から尿管・膀胱・尿道までの経路(尿路)の中で、尿の中に溶け込んでいるシュウ酸や尿酸などと、カルシウムとが結合したものが、丁度そこにあったゴミ(細胞の欠片や細菌など)を核にして結晶すると、尿路結石になります。一般的な尿路結石は、シュウ酸とカルシウムが結合したシュウ酸カルシウムが主な成分として形成されています。尿路結石の内、腎臓で出来た物が腎結石、尿管で出来た物が尿管結石、膀胱で出来れば膀胱結石となります。

\bibitem{IEEETMECH2008:NKoizumi}
Norihiro Koizumi, Shin'ichi Warisawa, Hiroyuki Hashizume, and Mamoru Mitsuishi, "Continuous path controller for the remote ultrasound diagnostic system," in IEEE/ASME Trans. on Mechatronics, Vol.13, No.2, pp.206-218, 2008.

\bibitem{IEEETRO2009:NKoizumi}
 Norihiro Koizumi, Shin'ichi Warisawa, Mitsuru Nagoshi, Hiroyuki Hashizume, and Mamoru Mitsuishi, "Construction methodology for a remote ultrasound diagnostic system," in IEEE Trans. on Robotics, Vol.25, No.3, pp.522-538, 2009.

\bibitem{IEEEUFFC2010:JSeo}
Joonho Seo, Norihiro Koizumi, Kiyoshi Yoshinaka, Naohiko Sugita, Akira Nomiya, Yukio Homma, Yoichiro Matsumoto, and Mamoru Mitsuishi, " Three-dimensional computer controlled acoustic pressure scanning and quantification of focused ultrasound," in IEEE Trans. on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol.57, No.4, pp.883-891, 2010.

\bibitem{IJMRCAS2011:JSeo}
Joonho Seo, Norihiro Koizumi, Takakazu Funamoto, Sugita Naohiko, Kiyoshi Yoshinaka, Akira Nomiya, Akira Ishikawa, Yukio Homma, Yoichiro Matsumoto, and Mamoru Mitsuishi, "Visual Servoing for a US-guided therapeutic HIFU system by coagulated lesion tracking: a phantom study, in International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, Vol.7, pp.237-247, 2011.
第0章 医療支援システムの構築法
\bibitem{NIKKAN1982:YHatamura}
畑村洋太郎, ”機械設計の考え方と方法,” 日刊工業新聞社, 1982.

\bibitem{NIKKAN1998:IUandTS}
内崎 巌, 佐藤知正, ”創造的技術者のための研究企画,” 日刊工業新聞社, 1998.

\bibitem{NIKKAN1998:IUandTS}
片岡一則, 位高啓史, 佐藤香枝, 小泉憲裕,  茂呂 徹, ”医療ナノテクノロジー ‒最先端医学とナノテクの融合-,” 杏林図書, 2007.

第1章 はじめに

\bibitem{2009IEEETransNKoizumi}
N.Koizumi, S.Warisawa, M.Nagoshi, H.Hashizume, and M.Mitsuishi, "Construction methodology for a remote ultrasound diagnostic system," {\it in IEEE Trans. on Robotics}, vol. 25, 2009, pp 522-538.

\bibitem{2008IEEETransNKoizumi}
N.Koizumi, S.Warisawa, H.Hashizume, and M.Mitsuishi, "Continuous path controller for the remote ultrasound diagnostic system," {\it in IEEE/ASME Trans. on Mechatronics}, vol. 12, no.2, pp 206-218, 2008.

H. Tsukihara, et al.: Prevention of Postoperative Peri-cardial Adhesions with a Novel Regenerative Colla-gen Sheet, Ann. Thorac. Surg., 81, 2, (2006), 650.
N.Koizumi, et al.: Robot vision technology for tech-nologizing and digitalization of medical diagnostic and therapeutic skills, International Journal of Auto-mation Technology (IJAT), 3, 5, (2009), 541.
N. Koizumi, et al.: Technologizing and Digitalizing Medical Professional Skills for a Non-Invasive Ultra-sound Theragnostic System, Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics (JRM), 24, 2, (2012), 379.

N. Koizumi, et al.: Construction Methodology for NIUTS –Bed Servoing System for Body Targets–, Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics (JRM), 25, 6, (2013), 1088.

\bibitem{BJR2003:JEKennedy}
J.E.~Kennedy, et al., \emph{High-intensity focused ultrasound: surgery of the future?}, in British Journal of Radiology, vol.76, pp.590-599, 2003.

\bibitem{JGP1942:JGLynn}
J.G.~Lynn, R.L.~Zwemer, A.J.~Chick, and A.E.~Miller, \emph{A new method for the generation and use of focused ultrasound in experimental biology}, in J.Gen.Physiol., vol.26, pp179-193, 1942.

\bibitem{UMB2006:TIkeda}
T.~Ikeda, S.~Yoshizawa, M.~Tosaki, J. S.~Allen, S.~Takagi, N.~Ohta, T.~Kitamura, and Y.~Matsumoto, \emph{Cloud Cavitation Control for Lithotripsy Using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound}, in Ultrasound Med Biol, vol.32, no.9, pp.1383-1397, 2006.

\bibitem{JC-Haifu}

\bibitem{ExAblate}

\bibitem{ALPINION}
http://www.alpinion.com/

\bibitem{MianyangSonicElectronic}
http://www.mshifu.com/

\bibitem{REMEDi}
http://www.remedi-project.eu/?Home

\bibitem{medsonic}
http://www.medsonic.com.cy/products.html
MRI compatible robotic system for animal experiments‏

\bibitem{JGP1942:KWu}
F.~Wu, Z.L.~Wang, Z.~Zhang, et al., \emph{Acute biological effects of high-intensity focused ultrasound on H22 liver tumours in vivo}, in Chin. Ultrasound Med., vol.13, no.3, 1997.

\bibitem{JCJU1999:GTu}
G.~Tu, T.Y.~Qiao, S.~He, \emph{An experimental study on high-intensity focused ultrasound in the treatment of VX-2 rabbit kidney tumours}, in Chin. J. Urol., vol.20, no.8, 1999.

\bibitem{UMB2001:FWu}
F.~Wu, W.Z.~Chen, J.~Bai, J.Z.~Zou, Z.L.~Wang, H.~Zhu, Z.B.~Wang, \emph{Pathological changes in malignant carcinoma treated with high-intensity focused ultrasound}, in Ultrasound Med. Biol. vol.27, no.8, pp.1099-1106, 2001.

\bibitem{UMB2004:JEKennedy}
J.E.~Kennedy, et al., \emph{High-intensity focused ultrasound for the treatment of liver tumours}, in Ultrasound Med. Biol.,  vol.42, pp.931-935, 2004.

Z Jin, H Choi, J Park, C Jung, SY Ko, JO Park, S Park, Feasibility Study of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Chronic Total Occlusion Therapy, Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering, 2016.
Abstract Recently, due to a lack of exercise and aging, cardiovascular disease has become
a major cause of death worldwide. Drug therapy and surgical operation have been widely
used to treat cardiovascular disease. However, the treatment of chronic total occlusions
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40846-016-0130-3

\bibitem{IEEESPECTRUM2014:Nanomotors Could Churn Inside of Cancer Cells to Mush}
http://spectrum.ieee.org/nanoclast/biomedical/devices/nanomotors-could-churn-inside-of-cancer-cells-to-mush/?utm_source=techalert&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=021314

\bibitem{1997Seitai-no-yuragi-to-rhythm:RWada}
赤池弘次, 和田孝雄, "生体のゆらぎとリズム--コンピュータ解析入門--," 講談社サイエンティフィク, 1997.

医療ロボットに関する関連研究

\bibitem{IEEE_PROC2006:RHTaylor}
R.H.Taylor, \emph{A Perspective on Medical Robotics}, in Proceedings of the IEEE, vol.94, no.9, pp.1652-1664, 2006.
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1717783&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fiel5%2F5%2F36142%2F01717783.pdf%3Farnumber%3D1717783

画像処理アルゴリズムに関する関連研究

 胎児の心臓病、AIで発見 理研、超音波画像使い新技術
https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASM7Z5SYVM7ZULBJ00Q.html?iref=com_latestnews_05

\bibitem{TRO1996:PICorke}
P. I. Corke, S. Hutchinson, and G. D. Hager, \emph{A tutorial on visual servo control}, in IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, vol.12, pp.651-670, 1996.

\bibitem{TPAMI1998:GDHager}
G. D. Hager and P. N. Belhumeur, \emph{Efficient region tracking with parametric models of geometry and illumination}, in IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol.20, pp.1025-1039, 1998.

\bibitem{TRO2004:FChaumette}
F. Chaumette, \emph{Image Moments: A general and useful set of features for visual servoing}, in IEEE Trans. Robotics and Automation, vol. 20, pp. 713-723, 2004.

\bibitem{TC2004:DIBarnea}
D. I. Barnea and H. F. Silverman, \emph{A class of algorithms for fast digital image registraition}, in IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-21, pp. 179-186, 2004.

\bibitem{ICARCSET 2015:DIBarnea}
K. Viswanath, R. Gunasundari, and S. A. Hussain, \emph{
Analysis of Kidney stone Detection by Reaction diffusion Level Set Segmentation and Xilinx System Generator}, in Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Advanced Research in Computer Science Engineering & Technology (ICARCSET 2015), no. 36, 2015.
The abnormalities of the kidney can be identified by ultrasound imaging has structural abnormalities like kidney swelling, change in its position appearance, formation of stones, cysts, cancerous cells, congenital anomalies and blockage of urine etc. For surgical operations it is very important to identify the exact and accurate location of stone in the kidney. The ultrasound images are of low contrast and contain speckle noise. This makes the detection of kidney abnormalities rather challenging task. Thus preprocessing of ultrasound images is carried out on Xilinx System generator (XSG) and implemented on Vertex-5 (XC5VLX50T) FPGA to remove speckle noise. In preprocessing, first image restoration is done to reduce speckle noise then it is applied to Gabor filter for smoothening. Next the resultant image is enhanced using convolution. The preprocessed ultrasound image is segmented using reaction diffusion (RD) level set segmentation (LSS), since it yields better results. it uses a two-step splitting methods to iteratively solve the RD-LSS equation, first step is iterating LSS equation, and then solving the diffusion equation. The second step is to regularize the level set function which is the obtained from first step for better stability. The RD is included for LSS for eliminating of anti-leakages on image boundary. The RD-LSS does not require any expensive re-initialization and it is very high speed of operation. The RD-LSS results are compared with distance regularized level set evolution (DRLSE1), DRLSE1 and DRLSE2. Extracted region of the kidney after segmentation is applied to Symlets, Biorthogonal (bio3.7, bio3.9 & bio4.4) and Daubechies wavelet subbands to extract energy levels. These energy level gives an indication about presence of stone in that particular location which significantly vary from that of normal energy level. These energy levels are trained by Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Back Propagation (BP) ANN to identify the type of stone with an accuracy of 99.1%.

開腹手術における患部追従の関連研究

\bibitem{ICRA2001:YNakamura}
Y. Nakamura, H. Kishi, and H. Kawakami, \emph{Heartbeat Synchronization for Robotic Cardiac Surgery}, in Proc. of the 2001 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp.2014-2019, 2001.

\bibitem{ICRA2004:AThankral}
A.~Thankral, J.~Wallace, D.~Tomlin, N.~Seth, and N.V.~Thakor, \emph{Surgical Motion Adaptive Robotic Technology (S.M.A.R.T): Tracking the Motion Out of Physiological Motion}, in Proc. 2004 Int. Conf. Robotics and Automation, pp.274-279, 2004.

\bibitem{TRO2005:RGinhoux}
R. Ginhoux, J. Gangloff, M. de Mathelin, L. Soler, M.M.A. Sanchez, and J. Marescaux, \emph{Active filtering of physiological motion in robotized surgery using predictive control, model predictive control and an adaptice observer}, in IEEE Trans. Robotics, vol. 21, pp. 67-79, 2005.

放射線治療における患部追従の関連研究

\bibitem{JCAS2000:ASchweikard}
A. Schweikard, G. Glosser, M. Bodduluri, M. Murphy, and J. R. Adler, \emph{Robotic motion compensation for respiratory movement during radiosurgery}, in J. Computer Aided Surgery, vol. 5, pp.2631-277, 2000.

\bibitem{SPIEMI2007:JTang}
J. Tang, S. Dieterich, and K. Cleary, \emph{Respiratory motion tracking of skin and liver in swine for CyberKnife motion compensation}, in Proc. SPIE Medical Imaging, vol. 5367, pp.729-734, 2004.

\bibitem{MD2008:COzhasoglu}
C. Ozhasoglu, C. B. Saw, H. Chen, S. Burton, K.Komanduri, N. J.Yue, S. M.Huq, and D. E. Heron, \emph{Synchrony - cyberknife respiratory compensation technology}, in Medical Dosimetry, vol. 33, pp.117-123, 2008.

\bibitem{MPL2010:RLi}
R.~Li, X.~Jia, J. H.~Lewis, X.~Gu, M.~Folkerts, C.~Men, and S. B.~Jiang, \emph{Real-time volumetric image reconstruction and 3D tumor localization based on a single x-ray projection image for lung cancer radiotherapy}, in Medical Physics Letter,  vol.37, no.6, pp.2822-2826, 2010.

\bibitem{MPL2010:RLi}
R.~Li, X.~Jia, J. H.~Lewis, X.~Gu, M.~Folkerts, C.~Men, and S. B.~Jiang, \emph{Real-time volumetric image reconstruction and 3D tumor localization based on a single x-ray projection image for lung cancer radiotherapy}, in Medical Physics Letter,  vol.37, no.6, pp.2822-2826, 2010.

\bibitem{TBE2013:GTo}
G.~To and M.R.~Mahfouz, \emph{Quaternionic Attitude Estimation for Robotic and Human Motion Tracking Using Sequential Monte Carlo Methods With von Mises-Fisher and Nonuniform Densities Simulations}, in IEEE Trans. on Biomedical Engineering,  vol.60, no.11, pp.3046-3059, 2013.

MRI画像による患部追従の関連研究
\bibitem{2011MICCAI:PArnold}
Arnold, P., Preiswerk, F., Fasel, B., Salomir, R., Scheffler, K., Cattin, P., 3D organ motion prediction for MR-guided high intensity focused ultrasound, MICCAI, Springer, pp.623–630, 2011.

\bibitem{2014MP:LBrix}
Lau Brix, Steffen Ringgaard, Thomas Sangild Sørensen, and Per Rugaard Poulsen, Three-dimensional liver motion tracking using real-time two-dimensional MRI, Medical Physics. Vol.41, No.4, 2014

超音波画像による患部追従の関連研究

岩崎隆雄, 三竹 毅, RVSの開発と臨床応用, MEDIX VOL.45.pp.23-26.
http://www.hitachi-medical.co.jp/tech/medix/pdf/vol45/P23-26.pdf

HIFUをもちいた診断・治療ロボットに関する研究

FUTURAプロジェクト
https://marcomuraresearch.wordpress.com/2015/08/26/the-futura-project-an-innovative-multi-robotic-platform-for-non-invasive-interventions/

A. Cafarelli, M. Mura, A. Diodato, A. Schiappacasse, M. Santoro, G. Ciuti, A computer-assisted robotic platform for Focused Ultrasound
Surgery: assessment of high intensity focused ultrasound delivery

Chanel, Laure-Anais ; ICube, Université de Strasbourg-CNRS, 67091, France ; Nageotte, Florent ; Vappou, Jonathan ; Luo, Jianwen more authors, Robotized High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) system for treatment of mobile organs using motion tracking by ultrasound imaging: An in vitro study
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=7318917

Selene Tognarelli, Gastone Ciuti, Alessandro Diodato, Andrea Cafarelli, and Arianna Menciassi, Robotic Platform for High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Surgery Under Ultrasound Tracking: The FUTURA Platform, JMRR Special Issue on CRAS 2015.
http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S2424905X17400104
FUTURA is a European seventh research framework programme project aimed at creating an innovative platform for Focused Ultrasound Surgery (FUS). Merging robotics together with noninvasive ultrasound monitoring and therapy has the goal to improve flexibility, precision and accuracy of the intervention, thus enabling a large use of FUS for the treatment of different pathologies. The FUTURA platform, based on FUS therapy under US tracking, has been set up with the first clinical target of kidney cancer treatment. Experiments for assessing the accuracy of the FUS delivery with the FUTURA platform have been carried out under in vitro static conditions and presented here as preliminary outcomes of this study.

HIstotripsy:

Cainらは生体組織を乳化させることが可能なHIstotripsy技術を開発している。

Histotripsy Beyond the Intrinsic Cavitation Threshold Using Very Short Ultrasound Pulses: Microtripsy, Lin, Kuang-Wei; Kim, Yohan; Maxwell, Adam D.; Wang, Tzu-Yin; Hall, Timothy L.; Xu, Zhen; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Cain, Charles A., IEEE T-UFFC, Vol 61, Iss 2, pp 251-265 (2014).

Triggered HIFU

S. UmemuraらはHistotripsyの概念を進化させ,物理的作用に加えて科学的および熱的効果を総合したTriggered HIFUの概念を提案している。

HIFUに関する研究

様々な臨床応用に対する集束超音波治療の現状:
http://www.fusfoundation.org/images/pdf/GenVaReprint_8pg.pdf

乳がんの研究 古澤らの研究
前立腺がんの研究  内田らの研究
肝がんの研究 沼田,福田らの研究

Kazushi Numata, Advances in ultrasound systems for hepatic lesions in Japan, Journal of Medical Ultrasonics, July 2015, Volume 42, Issue 3, pp 297-301.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10396-015-0630-8

世界初、昭和大学医療チームが超音波で胎児の病気治療に成功
http://www.showa-u.ac.jp/topics/2012/20120523_000.html

肋骨ごしにHIFUを照射を最適化する研究:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2879431/

LIFUに関する研究
A review of low-intensity focused ultrasound pulsation
http://www.brainstimjrnl.com/article/S1935-861X(11)00049-0/abstract

CMUT
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=7119995&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D7119995


MR compatible positioning device for guiding a focused ultrasound system for the treatment of brain deseases
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/rcs.1501/abstract

\bibitem{RR2009:AKrupa}
A. Krupa, G. Fichtinger, and G. Hager, \emph{Real-time motion stabilization with B-mode ultrasound image speckle information and visual servoing}, in International Journal of Robotics Research, vol. 28, pp.1334-1354, 2009.

\bibitem{ICRA2007:AKrupa}
A. Krupa, G. Fichtinger, and G. Hager, \emph{Full motion tracking in ultrasound using image speckle information and visual servoing}, in Proc. 2007 Int. Conf. Robotics and Automation, vol. 1, pp. 2458-2464, 2007.

\bibitem{MPL2010:RLi}
田中 旬, 中谷 敏, \emph{2Dティッシュトラッキング法による収縮性心膜炎評価}, in MEDIX, 46 : 4-7, 2005.
http://www.hitachi-medical.co.jp/tech/medix/pdf/vol46/P04-07.pdf

[] P.Yan et.al., “Discrete Deformable Model Guided by Partial Active Shape Model for TRUS Image Segmentation,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 57, pp. 1158-1166, 2010.

\bibitem{trunkGuideline}
日本放射線腫瘍学会, \emph{体幹部定位放射線治療ガイドライン}, http://www.jastro.or.jp/guideline/.

群馬大学重粒子線医学センターの現状報告
http://www.pasj.jp/cgi-bin/meetings/pasj10/pdf_get.cgi?SSFP%2FSSFP19%2FSSFP19.pdf

\bibitem{nikkei130903:東芝メディカル、血流を超音波で画像化 がん・炎症を診断}
日経新聞, \emph{東芝メディカルなど、肝がんの進行を超音波で把握する技術}, http://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXNASGG20011_T21C13A2TJM000/, 2013,9,3.

\bibitem{nikkei131224:東芝メディカル、血流を超音波で画像化 がん・炎症を診断}
日経新聞, \emph{東芝メディカル、血流を超音波で画像化 がん・炎症を診断}, http://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXNASGG20011_T21C13A2TJM000/, 2013,12,24.

\bibitem{2013: 伊藤慶一郎}
伊藤慶一郎, 救急医療における非侵襲的出血源推定手法に関する研究,  学位論文, 2013
http://dspace.wul.waseda.ac.jp/dspace/handle/2065/40151

\bibitem{2014:MMura}
Marco Mura, Gastone Ciuti, Vincenzo Ferrari, Paolo Dario, and Arianna Menciassi, "Ultrasound-based tracking strategy for endoluminal devices in cardiovascular surgery," in International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery (IJMRCAS), Vol.10, pp.--2014.
Mura et al, Developed US-based tracking algorithms for endoluminal devices in cardiovascular surgery, The algorithm, based on the combination of Shi–Tomasi features detector, Lucas–Kanade features tracking and watershed segmentation technique, was demonstrated to be the most reliable and accurate solution for the implementation of the tracking strategy of soft-tethered endoluminal devices.paving the way to a robust three-dimensional (3D) imaging US-based tracking strategy implementation.

本論文では,非侵襲なモダリティである超音波診断技術,および定量性や精確性を兼ねそろえたロボット技術の両技術を融合させ,非侵襲的に血管内血流量を計測し,その計測値に基づいて出血源を推定する手法ならびにシステムの設計論を導出した.

MRガイド下HIFUの位置決めに関する研究
A Prototype MR Compatible Positioning Device for Guiding a Focused Ultrasound System for the Treatment of Abdominal and Thyroid Cancer
Nicos Mylonas (Frederick University Cyprus, Limassol, Cyprus & City University, London, UK) and Christakis Damianou (Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol, Cyprus)
Volume 1, Issue 4.
http://www.igi-global.com/article/a-prototype-mr-compatible-positioning-device-for-guiding-a-focused-ultrasound-system-for-the-treatment-of-abdominal-and-thyroid-cancer/101965

ナノマシーンと強力集束超音波治療の融合

ナノマシンによる治療という,SF映画の世界が現実になりつつある。

片岡一則ら
http://www.ampo.jp/movies/vol59


超音波診断支援ロボットの機構に関する研究
Optimal synthesis of a spherical parallel mechanism for medical application
This paper introduces the design and the optimization of a probe holder robot for tele-echography applications. To define its kinematic architecture, an approach based on motion capture of an expert's gestures during ultrasound examinations was proposed. The medical gestures analyzed consisted of ultrasound probe movements and were used to characterize the kinematic specifications of the proposed manipulator. The selected architecture was a Spherical Parallel Mechanism (SPM) with 3 degrees of freedom (DoF) and its optimal synthesis was performed using real-coded Genetic Algorithms (GA). The optimization criteria and constraints were established thanks to the collaboration of medical experts and were successively formulated and solved using mono-objective and multi-objective functions.
http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9298501


C Nadeau, H Ren, A Krupa, P Dupont, "Intensity-Based Visual Servoing for Instrument and Tissue Tracking in 3D Ultrasound Volumes," in IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering,, pp.1-5, 2014.
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6880838&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D6880838
This paper presents a three dimensional ultrasound (3DUS)-based visual servoing technique for intraoperative tracking of the motion of both surgical instruments and tissue targets. In the proposed approach, visual servoing techniques are used to control the position of a virtual ultrasound probe so as to keep a target centered within the virtual probe's field-of-view. Multiple virtual probes can be servoed in parallel to provide simultaneous tracking of instruments and tissue. The technique is developed in the context of robotic beating-heart intracardiac surgery in which the goal of tracking is to both provide guidance to the operator as well as to provide the means to automate the surgical procedure. To deal with the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the 3DUS volumes, an intensity-based method is proposed that requires no primitive extraction or image segmentation since it directly utilizes the image intensity information as a visual feature. This approach is computationally efficient and can be applied to a wide range of tissue types and medical instruments. This paper presents the first validation of these techniques through offline robot and tissue tracking using actual in vivo cardiac volume sequences from a robotic beating-heart surgery.

\bibitem{IJS2IS2015:WJatmiko}
W Jatmiko, I Habibie, MA Ma'sum, R Rahmatullah, and I Putu Satwika, Automated telehealth system for fetal growth detection and approximation of ultrasound images
Int. J. on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems vol. 8, no. 1, Mar 2015
http://www.s2is.org/Issues/v8/n1/papers/paper34.pdf
One of the most profound use of ultrasound imaging is fetal growth monitoring. In this paper, an integrated automatic system for fetal growth monitoring and detection is proposed.

\bibitem{IJS2IS2015:MAnwarMasum}
M. Anwar Ma’sum, Wisnu Jatmiko, Budi Wiweko and Anom Bowolaksono, Automatic fetal organs detection and approximation in ultrasound image
Int. J. on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems vol. 8, no. 1, Mar 2015
http://www.s2is.org/Issues/v8/n1/papers/paper35.pdf
This paper proposed a system for detecting and approximating of a fetus in an ultrasound image.

Kim Mathiassen, et al., An Ultrasound Robotic System Using the Commercial Robot UR5, 2016.
http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/frobt.2016.00001/full

振動/振戦の除去に関する関連研究

\bibitem{2009KYano}
矢野賢一, 大原瑛一, 堀畑 聡, 青木隆明, 西本 裕, "適応フィルタを用いた振戦抑制制御システムの開発と食事支援ロボットへの応用," 計測自動制御学会論文集, Vol.45, No.12, pp.638--645, 2009.
https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/sicetr/45/12/45_12_638/_pdf

\bibitem{2003CNRiviere}
C.N.~Riviere, Wei-Tech.~Ang, and P.K.~Khosla, \emph{Filtering involuntary motion of people with tremor disability using optimal equalization}, {\it in IEEE Trans. on Robotics and Automation}, , vol. 15, no.5, pp.793-800, 2003.

\bibitem{2000SPledgie}
S.~Pledgie, K.E.~Barner, S.K.~Agrawal, and T.~Rahman, \emph{Tremor suppression through impedance control}, {\it in IEEE Trans on Rehabilitation and Engineering}, vol. 8, no.1, pp.53-59, 2000.

インピーダンス・パラメータを調整することで振動抑制を試みている.

\bibitem{1995JGGonzalez}
J.G.~Gonzalez, E.A.~Heredia, T.~Rahman, K.E.~Barner, and G.R.~Arce, \emph{Filtering involuntary motion of people with tremor disability using optimal equalization}, {\it in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. On Systems, Man and Cybernetics}, pp.2402-2407, 1995.
DOI: 10.1109/ICSMC.1995.538141

\bibitem{1999MKanagawa}
M.~Kanagawa, K.~Kiyokawa, H.~Takemura, and N.~Yokoya, \emph{A Study on the effect of time lag on direct manipulation of virtual objects}, {\it in Transactions of the Virtual Reality Society of Japan}, vol. 4, no.3, pp.563-571, 1999.

遠隔超音波診断システム関連

\bibitem{cite:0233683373ICRANKoizumi}
  {N.Koizumi, S.Warisawa, H.Hashizume, and M.Mitsuishi},
``Continuous Path Controller of Slave Manipulator in Remote Ultrasound Diagnostic System,''
\newblock {\it Proc. of 2002 Int. Conf. Robotics and Automation\rm},
  Vol.4, pp.3368-3373, 2002.
  \label{cite:0233683373ICRANKoizumi}

\bibitem{2013IROS:MSalerno}
  {M.Salerno, T.Mazzocchi, T.Ranzani, F.Mulana, P.Dario, and A.Menciassi},
``Safety systems in magnetically driven wireless capsule endoscopy,''
\newblock {\it Proc. of 2013 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intelligent Robots and Systems\rm},
  pp.3090-3095, 2013.
  \label{2013IROS:MSalerno}
http://vigir.missouri.edu/~gdesouza/Research/Conference_CDs/IEEE_IROS_2013/media/files/2192.pdf

Abou El Kalam, A., Ferreira, A., Kratz, F.,"Bilateral Teleoperation System Using QoS and Secure Communication Networks for Telemedicine Applications," IEEE Systems Journal, Vol.99, pp.1-12, 2005.

The next generation of telesurgical robotics systems presents significant challenges related to network performance and data security. It is known that packet transmission in wide area networks is a complex stochastic process; thus, low bandwidth as well as high delay, jitter, and packet loss will greatly affect the quality of service (QoS) of teleoperation control, which is unacceptable in this kind of sensitive application.

安全・安心な患部接触動作技術に関する研究
(力センサの利用)
A safety system, able to monitor pressure with patient abdomen, has been designed, characterized, and integrated with a magnetically driven WCE locomotion platform. New technologies, such as smart textiles, have been employed as sensible element. The proposed system showed promising results in controlling the pressure exerted on the abdomen respecting safety limits and increasing the efficiency and range of locomotion.

\bibitem{2013IROS:TEssomba}
T Essomba, MA Laribi, L Nouaille, S Zeghloul, "A specific performances comparative study of two spherical robots for tele-echography application," in Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 2014.
http://pic.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/04/06/0954406214530598.abstract

Essomba\cite{2013IROS:TEssomba}らは超音波診断の際の医師のジェスチャを解析し,2つの機構モジュールからなる仕様を策定した.2つの機構モジュールとは,球面状のRCM(Remote Center of Motion)機構による姿勢モジュールと並進モジュールである.


In this paper, two kinematic structures with optimized spherical wrist modules are proposed for the practice of tele-echography through a new slave holder robot for a remote ultrasound diagnostic application. The medical gestures, performed during an ultrasound examination, are analyzed using two different techniques. The results are used in the definition of the robot kinematic structure specifications. The proposed medical robot is formed by two modules, a spherical displacement orientation module and a translation module, to control the interaction force between the probe and the patient. Multicriteria optimization is proposed and is applied to two spherical structures: one serial and one parallel. Workspace size and kinematic performance, in addition to the index of compactness of the manipulator, are considered in the optimization. The efficiency of the optimized kinematic structures across their workspace is studied and compared to determine which one is more adapted to the tele-echography application.

超音波を用いた手持ちの骨切除デバイス
http://www.stryker.co.jp/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/IT01-072.pdf

Hug, J., Brechb¨uhler, C., Sz´ekely, G.: Model-based initialisation for segmentation.
In: Vernon, D. (ed.) ECCV 2000. LNCS, vol. 1843, pp. 290–306. Springer, Heidelberg
(2000).
ftp://oenone-v06.ee.ethz.ch/publications/proceedings/eth_biwi_00197.pdf


\bibitem{IROS2014:LZhang}

L.Zhang , S.Lee, G.Yang, and G.P.Mylonas, \emph{Semi-Autonomous Navigation for Robot Assisted Tele-Echography using Generalized Shape Models and Co-Registered RGB-D cameras}, {\it in Proc. of 2014 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intelligent Robotics and Systems}, pp.3496-3502, 2014.

Zhang, et al. proposes a 3D statistical shape model of the customized patient model for tele-ecography. The generated patient model can be updated and adaptively fitted to the patient to generate a trajectory to navigate a robotic arm for the ultrasound examination.

Robotic Ultrasound Systems in Medicine
Article · Mar 2013 · IEEE transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control
Alan M. Priester Alan M. Priester   Shyam Natarajan Shyam Natarajan   Martin O. Culjat Martin O. Culjat

第2章 医療技能の技術化・デジタル化

\bibitem{2007KKataoka}
片岡一則, 位高啓史, 佐藤香枝, 小泉憲裕, 茂呂徹:医療ナノテクノロジー-最先端医学とナノテクの融合-,杏林図書,2007.

\bibitem{2008TakumisaToRobotNoRikigaku:SArimoto}
有本 卓, 関本昌紘, "巧みさとロボットの力学," 毎日コミュニケーションズ, 2008.

\bibitem{ASAKURA1992:NPS}
N.P.スー, 畑村洋太郎, ”設計の原理-創造的機械設計論-,”朝倉書店, 1992.

\bibitem{IROS2009:NKoizumi}
N.~Koizumi, J.~Seo, Y.~Suzuki, D.~Lee, Kohei Ota, A.Nomiya, S.Yoshizawa, K.Yoshinaka, N.Sugita, H.Homma, Y.Matsumoto, and M.~Mitsuishi, \emph{A control framework for the non-invasive ultrasound theragnostic system}, {\it in Proc. of 2009 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intelligent Robotics and Systems}, pp.4511-4516, 2009.

藤本英雄, デジタル化による動きを伴う伝統技能の保存、伝承
http://www.mext.go.jp/component/b_menu/shingi/toushin/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2013/03/18/1213757_006.pdf

\bibitem{JRSJ2013:TNatsume}
夏目 徹, \emph{ヒト型汎用ロボットによるライフサイエンスの近代化}, 日本ロボット学会誌, vol. 31, no.4, pp.58-61, 2013.

\bibitem{IEEETransBE2006:MJHLum}
M.J.H.~Lum, J.~Rosen, M.N.~Sinanan, and B.~Hannaford, \emph{Kinematic optimization of serial and parallel spherical mechanism for a minimally invasive surgical robot}, {\it in IEEE Trans. on Biomedical Engineering}, vol.53, pp.1440-1445, 2006.

\bibitem{A Georgia Tech professor of robotics argues automation is still creating more jobs than it destroys}


\bibitem{2013シャロン・バーチュ・マグレイン:異端の統計学ベイズ}
シャロン・バーチュ・マグレイン, 冨永 星(訳), "異端の統計学ベイズ," 草思社, 2013.
ベイズ理論の医用応用について,さまざまな示唆を与えてくれる.

\bibitem{A Georgia Tech professor of robotics argues automation is still creating more jobs than it destroys}

\bibitem{2006Bayesian:YMotomura}
本村陽一, 岩崎弘利, "ベイジアンネットワーク技術," 東京電機大学出版局, 2006.

\bibitem{2009涌井良幸:道具としてのベイズ統計}
涌井良幸, "道具としてのベイズ統計," 日本実業出版社, 2009.
あらたなデータを取得することで標準偏差が小さくなり,信頼度が高められる(pp.113).すなわち,相関係数も高められる.

\bibitem{2013:JEFjellin}
Jørgen Enger Fjellin, \emph{Design of a bilateral master-slave system with haptic feedback for ultrasound examinations}, 2013.
https://www.duo.uio.no/handle/10852/37456
http://scholar.google.com/scholar_url?hl=en&q=https://www.duo.uio.no/bitstream/handle/10852/37456/jorgenefmaster.pdf%3Fsequence%3D1&sa=X&scisig=AAGBfm399-K6m_wzWcDhtH7hymQH1n0Giw&oi=scholaralrt

\bibitem{IEEETransBE2006:MJHLum}
N.~Padoy and G.D.~Hager, \emph{3D Thread Tracking for Robotic Assistance in Tele-surgery}, {\it in Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)}, 2011.
http://www.cs.jhu.edu/~padoy/media/pubs/padoy-IROS2011-web.pdf

縫合糸のトラッキングに関する研究を行なっている \cite{IEEETransBE2006:MJHLum}.

\bibitem{OST:KidneyPhantom}
http://www.ost-jp.com/%E6%B3%8C%E5%B0%BF%E5%99%A8%E9%A0%98%E5%9F%9F%E7%94%A8%E3%83%95%E3%82%A1%E3%83%B3%E3%83%88%E3%83%A0/

\bibitem{AIST:AIST/HQL人体寸法・形状データベース2003}
https://www.dh.aist.go.jp/database/fbodyDB/

産総研では,患者のモデルを構築するにあたって有用な情報である人体寸法・形状のデータベース提供している。

\bibitem{JACVSD}
http://jcvsd.umin.jp/

心臓血管外科領域においては,世界でも類をみない大規模なデータベース(日本心臓血管外科手術データベース:JACVSD)が構築されつつある.また,このようなデータベースの正確性・信頼性を維持・向上するにあたって,Site Visitという,参加施設を訪問して手術台帳・病歴カルテを参照しデータ入力が適切であるかを専門医が評価する仕組みが導入・確立されつつある。

日本心臓血管外科手術データベースとは、本邦における心臓血管外科関連の手術データベースを構築することにより、欧米アジア諸国とも共同して心臓血管外科手術のリスクを分析し、本邦における心臓血管外科手術の質の向上を計り、もって国民によりよい医療を提供しようとするものである。

ソフトウェア・プロダクト・ライン開発手法:
http://www.kumikomi.net/archives/2012/01/ep01spl3.php?page=3

\bibitem{1998GakushuToNeuralNetwork:IKumazawa}
熊沢逸夫, "学習とニューラルネットワーク," 森北出版, 1998.

放射線科医の視点から考える 検像のあり方
http://www.innervision.co.jp/01inner/2010/pdf/iv1011_03.pdf

第3章 超音波画像による生体患部追従の問題点と解決策


\bibitem{ICRA2014:NKoizumi}
N.~Koizumi, T.~Funamoto, J.~Seo, D.~Lee, H.~Tsukihara, A.~Nomiya, T.~Azuma, K.~Yoshinaka, N.~Sugita, H.~Homma, Y.~Matsumoto, and M.~Mitsuishi, \emph{A novel robust template matching method to track and follow body targets for NIUTS}, {\it in Proc. of 2014 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Robotics and Automation}, pp.1929-1936, 2014.

\bibitem{2007nano-scale-servo:TYamaguchi}
山口高司, 平田光男, 藤本博志, "ナノスケールサーボ--高速・高精度に位置を決める技術--," 東京電機大学出版局, 2007.

\bibitem{1998MATLABniyoru-seigyoriron-no-kiso:KNonami}
野波健蔵, 西村秀和, "MATLABによる制御理論の基礎," 東京電機大学出版局, 1998.

\bibitem{各種合成樹脂素材の音響特性}
http://www.tech.nite.go.jp/human/jp/pdf/2nddevelop/echo.pdf

\bibitem{2008SeimitsuIchigime:AMatsubara}
松原 厚, "精密位置決め・送り系設計のための制御工学," 森北出版株式会社, 2008.

第4章 機構


可視化機構に関する研究

患者にとって安全・安心なシステムを構築するうえで必須である。
患者が直観的にみてわかりやすい機構、機構が可視化されている機構は医療機器のアフォーダンスを高める観点からきわめて重要である。アフォーダンスとは直観的なわかりやすさで、椅子は、教えられないのに、座るものだと理解することができる。

水中ロボットに関する研究
Robotic fish -Design and characterization of an interactive iDevice-Controlled robotic fish for informal science education-
Robotics and Automation magazine, vol.22, no.1, pp.86-96, 2015.

第5章 制御

坂本登, システムの受動性に関する研究, 1996.
http://ir.nul.nagoya-u.ac.jp/jspui/handle/2237/6437

臓器の運動予測モデルに関する研究
Bo Yang, Member, IEEE, Chao Liu, Senior Member, IEEE, Philippe Poignet, Wenfeng Zheng, and
Shan Liu, Motion Prediction Using Dual Kalman Filter for Robust Beating
Heart Tracking
10.1109/EMBC.2015.7319485

\bibitem{リアルタイム組込みOS:Qing Li}
Qing Li, "リアルタイム組込みOS," 翔泳社, 2005.

リアルタイム組込みOSの概念や機能についてわかりやすく解説している.

\bibitem{AJN2001:D.Cordes}
D.Cordes, V.M.Haughton, K.Arfanakis, J.D.Carew, P.A.Turski, C.H.Moritz, M.A.Quigley and M.E.Meyerand, "Frequencies contributing to functional connectivity in the cerebral cortex in "resting-state" data.," {\it in Am. J. Neuroradiol.}, vol. 22, no.7, 2001, pp 1326-1333.

\bibitem{2008SeimitsuIchigime:AMatsubara}
金原昭臣, 黒須 茂, "ディジタル制御入門," 日刊工業新聞社, 1990.

\bibitem{2013HMita}
三田宇洋, "MATLAB/Simulinkによるモデルベースデザイン入門," オーム社, 2013.
http://www.ohmsha.co.jp/data/link/978-4-274-21402-8/

\bibitem{2012YMori}
森泰親, "演習で学ぶディジタル制御," 森北出版, 2012.

内藤敏機, 日野義之, 原 惟行, 宮崎倫子, "タイムラグをもつ微分方程式," 牧野書店, 2002.


冗長ロボットの軌道制御に関する関連研究
Variable Joint-Velocity Limits of Redundant Robot Manipulators Handled by Quadratic Programming
Zhijun Zhang, Yunong Zhang
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics (Impact Factor: 3.14). 01/2013; 18(2):674-686. DOI: 10.1109/TMECH.2011.2181977
ABSTRACT In this paper, a variable joint-velocity limits (VJVL)-constrained minimum-velocity-norm (MVN) scheme (termed VJVL-constrained MVN scheme) is proposed and investigated for redundant manipulators, i.e., the JVL change with the end-effector and joints movement. The scheme is then formulated as a quadratic program (QP), which is subject to an equality constraint and a bound constraint, and such a QP problem is solved by a discrete QP solver, i.e., a numerical algorithm. In addition, experimental results performed on a planar six degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) push-rod (PR) redundant robot manipulator substantiate the physical realizability and efficacy of such a VJVL-constrained MVN scheme and the corresponding discrete QP solver. Furthermore, the position-error analyses verify the accuracy of the proposed scheme on redundant manipulators.


第6章 画像処理アルゴリズム

\bibitem{IJMRCAS14:MAzizian}
M Azizian, N Najmaei, M Khoshnam, R Patel, Visual servoing in medical robotics: a survey. Part II: tomographic imaging modalities–techniques and applications, Int J Med Robot Comput Assist Surg (IJMRCAS), 2014
Intraoperative application of tomographic imaging techniques provides a means of visual servoing for objects beneath the surface of organs. The focus of this survey is on therapeutic and diagnostic medical applications where tomographic ...

(結石検出アルゴリズムに関する関連研究)
 K Viswanath, R Gunasundari, Analysis and Implementation of Kidney Stone Detection by Reaction Diffusion Level Set Segmentation using Xilinx System Generator on FPGA

 The detection of kidney stones using Ultrasound imaging is a highly challenging task as they are of low contrast and contains speckle noise. This challenge is overcome by employing suitable image processing techniques. The ultrasound image is first preprocessed to get rid of speckle noise using the image restoration process. The restored image is smoothened using Gabor filter and the subsequent image is enhanced by histogram equalization. The preprocessed image is achieved with level set segmentation to detect the stone region. Segmentation process is employed twice for getting better results, first to segment kidney portion and then to segment the stone portion respectively. In this work, the level set segmentation uses two terms namely momentum and resilient propagation (Rprop) to detect the stone portion. After segmentation, the extracted region of the kidney stone is given to Symlets, Biorthogonal (bio3.7, bio3.9 & bio4.4) and Daubechies lifting scheme wavelet subbands to extract energy levels. These energy levels provide evidence about presence of stone, by comparing them with that of the normal energy levels. They are trained by Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Back Propagation (BP) ANN to classify and its type of stone with an accuracy of 98.8%. The prosed work is designed and real time implemented on both Filed Programmable Gate Array Vertex-2Pro FPGA using Xilinx System Generator (XSG) Verilog and Matlab2012a.

K Viswanath, R Gunasundari, VLSI Implementation and Analysis of Kidney Stone Detection from Ultrasound Image by Level Set Segmentation and MLP-BP ANN Classification, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Springer, 2016
Abstract In recent years, there is an increase in the count of individuals suffering from kidney abnormalities. Kidney stone prevalence has increased both in men and women, across all age groups, racial/ethnic groups. According to the recent statisticscal report, the vulnerability of kidney stone abnormality even surpasses the effects of several chronic diseases, including diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. This inflicts a need for early detection and accurate diagnosis of kidney stones. Urologists undergo enormous stress at the time of surgery related to stone removal in order to precisely locate the stones, which may be scattered. Kidney abnormality may also indicate the formation of stones, cysts, cancerous cells, and blockage of urine, etc. Currently available scanning approaches in hospitals such as Ultrasound (US) imaging, MRI, and CT scanners, do not help in easy and quick diagnosis of the minute stones in the initial stage, as well as multiple stones present in the scanned images due to low contrast and speckle noise. Thus, to remove speckle noise in ultrasound images preprocessing is applied. Reaction and diffusion (RD) level set segmentation is applied two times, first to the segment kidney portion and second to segment the stone portion. The extracted region of the kidney stone after segmentation is applied with Symlets, Biorthogonal, and Daubechies lifting scheme wavelet subbands with higher vanishing moments to extract energy levels. These energy levels give an indication about the presence of stone, which significantly vary from that of normal energy level. These energy levels are trained by multilayer perceptron (MLP) and back propagation (BP) ANN to identify the type of stone with an accuracy of 97.8 % and real time implementation is done using Verilog on Vertex-2Pro FPGA.
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-81-322-2656-7_19

\bibitem{3DSlicer}
http://www.slicer.org/
http://www.mediotech.co.jp/3dslicer.html

\bibitem{CVPR:TKaneko}
T.Kaneko and O.Hori, \emph{Feature Selection for Reliable Tracking using Template Matching}, {\it in Proc. of 2003 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR2003)}, pp.796-802, 2003.
http://nguyendangbinh.org/Proceedings/CVPR/2003/pdffiles/papers/P02_16.pdf

SONY スペクトラムフローサイトメトリー:
http://www.sony.co.jp/SonyInfo/News/Press/201211/12-173/
細胞分析装置‘フローサイトメーター’とは、特定の条件下で発光する蛍光試薬で細胞を染色し、レーザー光を当てた際に発する光を蛍光情報として検出することで、1秒間に数万個におよぶ各種細胞の大きさや個数、細胞表面や細胞内部の各種情報(構造、機能、バイオマーカー等)を解析する装置です。‘フローサイトメーター’には細胞の解析のみ行う「セルアナライザー」と、細胞の解析および分取を行う「セルソーター」の2種類があります。

そのほか

(内臓脂肪計測)
[1] Yu Chiba, et al., Relationship between Visceral Fat and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: The Tanno and Sobetsu Study, Hypertension Research (2007) 30, 229–236.
http://www.nature.com/hr/journal/v30/n3/full/hr200732a.html

[2] 田所直子ほか, 腹部超音波法による内臓脂肪蓄積量の推定, 肥満研究, 2002.
http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10012281189
超音波を用いて内臓蓄積を簡便に評価する方法を開発している。腹部超音波法はX線による被曝がなく,CT装置のない施設でも手軽に繰返し計測できる利点がある。本法では,腹膜上の脂肪の厚さの最大値(preperitoneal fat thickness: PFT)と皮下脂肪の厚さ(Subcutaneous fat thickness: SFT)の最小値を測定する。そしてその比であるPFT/SFTを腹壁脂肪指数(abdominal fat wall index: AFI)とし,男性では1.0以上,女性では0.7以上を内臓型肥満とした。

Visceral fat distance (VFD) was measured between the peritoneum and the lumber spine. 腹部の体軸断面の構造を認識し,内臓脂肪量を評価している。

Evaluation of conoscopic holography for estimating tumor resection cavities in model-based image-guided neurosurgery
Amber L. Simpson, Kay Sun, Thomas S. Pheiffer, D. Caleb Rucker, Allen K. Sills, Reid C. Thompson, and Michael I. Miga, Vanderbilt University and Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Volume 61, Issue 6, Page: 1143-1154

A microwave imaging system for real-time 3-D imaging of differential temperature has been developed for the monitoring and feedback of thermal therapy systems. Design parameters are constrained by features of a prototype-focused microwave thermal therapy system for the breast, operating at 915 MHz. Real-time imaging is accomplished with a precomputed linear inverse scattering solution combined with continuous vector network analyzer (VNA) measurements of a 36-antenna, HFSS-modeled, cylindrical cavity. Volumetric images of differential change of dielectric constant due to temperature are formed with a refresh rate as fast as 1 frame/s and 1  $^circ$C resolution. Procedures for data segmentation and postprocessed S-parameter error-correction are developed. Antenna pair VNA calibration is accelerated by using the cavity as the unknown thru standard. The device is tested on water targets and a simple breast phantom. Differentially heated targets are successfully imaged in cluttered environments. The rate of change of scattering contrast magnitude correlates 1:1 with target temperature.

Nanometals and Complexes in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy
S Bashir, S Palakurthi, HC Zhou, J Liu - Handbook of Metallonutraceuticals, 2014

187ページに本研究の引用

The process of fabrication of a nanotheranostic system has multiple components, with each components having unique properties and advantages. For example, a signal emitter emits a signal upon excitation by external source. The therapeutic moiety can be a drug,, gene, or nucleic acid, such as small interfering RNA. The nanocarrier is a polymetric carrier capable of carrying a high drug payload.

The targeting ligand  is the entity that can blind to a disease marker with high specificity, so as to deliver the entire system to the target cell. The response of a signal emitter can be captured in real time y non-invasive imaging techniques, such as MRI, CT, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, and ultrasound.

http://books.google.co.jp/books?hl=en&lr=&id=PZh_AwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA185&ots=byCwerpcRq&sig=X0TvkS3Zz-rQg54gAXV_fP9kAFM&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

Alireza Abbasi-Moshaii, Farshid Najafi, (2014) "A review of robotic mechanisms for ultrasound examinations", Industrial Robot: An International Journal, Vol. 41 Iss: 4

This paper discusses the concept of robotic ultrasound imaging, and classifies the mechanisms in terms of their power trains used for robotic and haptic devices which assist physicians to perform ultrasound imaging on patients. A set of mechanical characteristics which together can generate a superior design is also presented.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3126059/
泌尿器科におけるピンポイント診断・治療

接触力の検出
\bibitem{CVPR:TKaneko}
M.Balicki, A.Uneri, I.Iordachita, J.Handa, P.Gehlbach, and R.Taylor, \emph{Micro-force sensing in robot assisted membrane peeling for vitreoretinal surgery}, {\it in Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv.}, vol.13, pp.303-310, 2010.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20879413
1.トレーニングシステムにおける有用性.
2.力-音変換の有用性.noisyな環境に対する対応を考慮すべき.

M.P.Kummer, J.J.Abbott, B.E.Kratochvil, R.Borer, A.Sengul, and B.J.Nelson,
"OctoMag: An Electromagnetic System for 5-DOF Wireless Micromanipulation",
in IEEE Trans. Robotics, Vol.26, No.6, pp.1006--1017, 2010.
http://www.eng.utah.edu/~jabbott/pmwiki/uploads/Main/Kummer_TRO10.pdf

\bibitem{2007nano-scale-servo:TYamaguchi}
金出武雄, "使われる技術の創造," 日本ロボット学会誌, vol.22, no.3, pp.296-299,  2004.
『素人発想,玄人実行』のすすめ

Prof. Paolo Dario's works are introduced on BBC news.
http://m.bbc.co.uk/news/health-26036429

高木貞治, "解析概論(改訂第3版)," 岩波書店, 1983.

超音波とは?Dr. Sonoの公開講座:
http://www.toshiba-medical.co.jp/tmd/library/lecture/sono/swf/top_swf.html

音響工学の基礎
http://www.t-net.ne.jp/~kondoy/lecture/index.html

超音波プローブの操作
http://nv-med.mtpro.jp/jsrt/pdf/2000/56_10/05.pdf

慶應大学 講義 物理情報数学A 第五回
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4V3GmaUDzrU
グリーンの公式の定理の理解に役立つ,

慶應大学 理工学部 講義 数理物理 第一回
http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=p3gOcjWtf_0&feature=endscreen
ガウスの定理とストークの定理の理解に役立つ,そのほか,ベクトル公式など

消散システム理論に基づく制御系設計
http://ir.nul.nagoya-u.ac.jp/jspui/bitstream/2237/6617/1/hodaka.pdf

System Identification Toolboxの使い方
http://www.mathworks.co.jp/jp/products/sysid/

コンピュータビジョンのための画像の特徴点の抽出
http://www.suri.it.okayama-u.ac.jp/~kanatani/papers/harris.pdf

XperiaTM SO-01Bの製品アップデート情報
http://www.nttdocomo.co.jp/support/utilization/product_update/list/so01b/i

How To: Install Flash 10.1 On Android 2.1 Eclair Devices
http://www.addictivetips.com/mobile/how-to-install-flash-10-1-on-android-2-1-eclair-devices/

ステッピングモータで位置制御だけでなくトルク制御も
http://www.sotuu.net/cosmotechs/cthd.html?q=611m5kkFvalIr4xOepf6AO

呼吸の計測
http://japan.gehealthcare.com/cwcjapan/static/cardiology/magazine_lecture/nurse/nurse_05.html
姿勢計測,心電計測:
http://www.zmp.co.jp/humansensingpackage.html

運動器の慢性疼痛
https://ds-pharma.jp/gakujutsu/contents/undouki_spine/seminar/se05/movie/02/presenter_player.html#3

触覚認知
http://www.barrierfree.gr.jp/cogsci/note2007/04.pdf

臨床痛み学テキスト
http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=n-KG5X5KDPkC&pg=PA17&lpg=PA17&dq=%E8%87%AA%E7%94%B1%E7%A5%9E%E7%B5%8C%E7%B5%82%E6%9C%AB+%E4%BE%B5%E5%AE%B3%E5%8F%97%E5%AE%B9%E5%99%A8&source=bl&ots=kNEChkTV_o&sig=G7e3FUpH4_jtJUWF86e4VpdUIs4&hl=ja&sa=X&ei=_llMUbnJIMH0kQX36IGgDw&ved=0CHMQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=%E8%87%AA%E7%94%B1%E7%A5%9E%E7%B5%8C%E7%B5%82%E6%9C%AB%20%E4%BE%B5%E5%AE%B3%E5%8F%97%E5%AE%B9%E5%99%A8&f=false

痛みの伝達経路と慢性痛の発生・維持機構
http://www3.kmu.ac.jp/medchem/index2.html

受容器と感覚情報
www.oit.ac.jp/bme/~akazawa/bitext/S4-1.pdf

痛み
http://www7b.biglobe.ne.jp/~shimada1/Pain.html

痛みの軽減のために“刺鍼法”
http://www.braincampaign.org/Common/Docs/Files/2778/jchap5.pdf

痛み特に難治性の痛みとその対策
http://www.tvk.ne.jp/~junkamo/new_page_253.htm

傍腫瘍性神経症候群と抗神経抗体
http://www.neurology-jp.org/Journal/public_pdf/050060371.pdf

味覚
http://www.jacsri.jp/JACSRI/taste/taste.html

生体における動的恒常性維持・変容機構の解明と制御
http://www.jst.go.jp/kisoken/presto/research_area/ongoing/103koujyousei.html

神経細胞の培養
http://www.dspbio.co.jp/pdf/square2/neuron.pdf

象牙質歯髄複合体培養系を用いた温度痛覚受容体の発現と
そのメカニズム解析
http://ir.kagoshima-u.ac.jp/bitstream/10232/11832/1/19791404seika.pdf

遺伝子の働き、環境で変化
http://www.nikkei.com/article/DGKDZO55472010V20C13A5MZ9000/

失敗学畑村洋太郎先生の政府事故調報告
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fcrep27u9GI

JR Maglev
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IPduAYKk_6I

Bioengineering Seminar
http://www.bioeng.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp/temp/rinkou/uploader/upload.cgi

超伝導を利用したPCの性能向上
http://engawa.2ch.net/test/read.cgi/ojyuken/1363019121/

査読コメントへの対処法
http://www.forte-science.co.jp/news/articles/20130328/editorial_snapshot_part23.cfm?utm_source=edm&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=20130328

技術士試験の過去問
http://www.engineer.or.jp/c_categories/index02021.html

2次元フーリエ変換の動作がよくわかる:
2次元フーリエ変換全般の解説:

フーリエ変換の解説:
http://www.ic.is.tohoku.ac.jp/~swk/lecture/yaruodsp/fs.html


超音波画像における視野角、走査線密度の解説:

http://www.innervision.co.jp/suite/hitachi/technote/080430/


http://www.tuat.ac.jp/~yamada/onkyo/chap10/

http://www.ekouhou.net/%E8%B6%85%E9%9F%B3%E6%B3%A2%E8%A8%BA%E6%96%AD%E8%A3%85%E7%BD%AE%E3%81%8A%E3%82%88%E3%81%B3%E8%B6%85%E9%9F%B3%E6%B3%A2%E7%94%BB%E5%83%8F%E7%94%9F%E6%88%90%E6%96%B9%E6%B3%95/disp-A,2012-192077.html

畳み込み積分の解説:
http://www.ice.tohtech.ac.jp/~nakagawa/laplacetrans/convolution1.htm

関数の直交の意味:
http://www.maroon.dti.ne.jp/koten-kairo/works/fft/intro4.html

バネ・マス・ダンパ系,伝達関数表現と状態方程式表現の関係:
http://www-b2.is.tokushima-u.ac.jp/1997/fujita/seigyo.html

離散時間モデルと連続時間モデル:
http://mech.u-fukui.ac.jp/~Kawa-Lab/lecture/modern/chap8f.pdf

移動平均フィルタ,ガウシアンフィルタ:
http://imagingsolution.blog107.fc2.com/blog-entry-88.html

初心者の、初心者による、初心者のためのカルマンフィルタ
http://www1.accsnet.ne.jp/~aml00731/kalman.pdf

お手軽カルマンフィルタ:
http://blog.livedoor.jp/k_yon/archives/52309233.html

日本生活習慣病予防協会:
http://www.seikatsusyukanbyo.com/calendar/2012/002010.php
特定健康診断の受診対象者数は約5000万人

ファイル処理,名簿をつくろう:
http://www.ccad.sist.chukyo-u.ac.jp/~mito/ss/program/C/DialogBase/control/file/index.htm

Win32APIの使い方:
http://www.geocities.jp/ky_webid/win32c/index.html

Google IME(Windowsの日本語入力環境):
http://yohshiy.blog.fc2.com/blog-entry-175.html
かなり快適になった.ベイズの定理は偉大.

Adobe Acrobat Xが起動しなくなったときの対応:
http://helpx.adobe.com/jp/creative-cloud/kb/cpsid_93827.html

Sono jelly
日本光電さんで取り扱っている
https://www3.toshiba.co.jp/tmeds/ultrasound/

Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine
http://www.aium.org/

日本電計
http://www.n-denkei.co.jp/kigyo/kigyo_kantou.html#0
〒110-0005 東京都台東区上野5-14-1 NDビル
Tel. (03)3834-6321 Fax. (03)3836-3237
E-mail : tokyo-i@n-denkei.co.jp〈民間〉
E-mail : tokyo-w@n-denkei.co.jp〈学校・官庁〉

アドバネットの商品
CPUボード:Advme7521
ADボード:Advme2608A

モーションコントロールボード
VPG86
マニュアル:
http://www.niuts.sakura.ne.jp/nkoizumi/VPG-86_GM01%20.pdf

omronの近接センサ
E2S-W23B
http://www.fa.omron.co.jp/product/item/e2s_7055f/
取り扱い注意(これまでに2個ほどお釈迦にしてしまった,,,)

3Dマウス Space Navigator ドライバ:
http://www.3dconnexion.jp/service/drivers.html
(無線のバージョンも出たようだ,,,)
SDK:
http://www.3dconnexion.jp/service/software-developer/licence-agreement/sdk-download.html

まごの手スイッチ(2.5m)(ホワイト) WH2913PK
http://ctlg.panasonic.com/jp/tap/extension-cord/WH2913PK.html

トーヨーオートポンプTP-10R
http://tp-miyake.co.jp/pro_po-10R.html

林時計工業㈱HP
http://www.htkgp.co.jp/hwatch/
元々は、時計のセイコー社の下請け会社で、精密小型ユニットが得意
現在は、LED光源ユニットやペルチェ冷却ユニットを製作する会社
電子顕微鏡の光源の70%を手掛けている

EUB6500
http://www.us-tip.com/serv1.php?type=db1&dbs=Hi+Vision%99+6500+-+EUB-6500

E&I社製2100L広帯域RFパワーアンプ
http://www.rfpower.jp/index_products.html

英文校正サービス:editage
http://www.editage.jp/

学会・研究会カレンダー
http://kenkyuukai.m3.com/event/event_calendar.asp

open cv:
http://opencv.org/downloads.html
Extracted to
C:\ocv

実行時のパス
set path=C:\ocv\opencv\build\x86\vc10\bin;%PATH%
set path=C:\ocv\opencv\build\x64\vc10\bin;%PATH%

ImageJ
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/ImageJ

CUDA Toolkit:
https://developer.nvidia.com/cuda-toolkit

フリーのDICOM Viewer
NCC-CIR Viewer
http://cir.ncc.go.jp/jp/jdwncv.html

はんだごて:
https://www.hakko.com/japan/products/hakko_fx888d.html
https://doc.hakko.com/download.php?_gs=on&l=ja&kp=FX-888D&d=4114

・FAコントローラ
EWS-X035Q
ハイグレードCD PCI Expressスロット搭載モデル
http://www.interface.co.jp/catalog/prdc.asp?name=ews-x035q
※この製品に、Windows XP系組込OSである、
Windows Embedded Standard 2009をインストールするカスタマイズを
施しております。HDDは2TB 1台となっております。

・拡張ユニット
EXP-PCI04S(OP)
PCI 4スロットショートサイズ拡張ユニット 光Express転送セット
http://www.interface.co.jp/catalog/prdc.asp?name=exp-pci04s%28op%29

ポケオシ、ポケアナ、ポケデジアナ(日本データシステム):

ポケオシ(ポケットサイズの1G高速サンプリングオシロスコープ:Pocket size USB digital storage oscilloscope):
http://www.jds.co.jp/?page_id=178
http://www.jds.co.jp/common/download/catalogues/UDS-1G02S_Cat.pdf

ポケアナ(36chロジックアナライザ):
http://www2.elecom.co.jp/products/ULA-4G36-180K.html

ポケデジアナ36(ポケオシとポケアナの組合わせ)
http://www2.elecom.co.jp/products/UDA-1G36S.html

山登株式会社
ポスター印刷
TEL:03-3815-3201
入稿用mail: pod@yamato-cs.com

さくらインターネット
https://secure.sakura.ad.jp/rscontrol/

mendeley:
http://www.mendeley.com/

UNIX入門
http://cmd.misty.ne.jp/basic/index.html

ビャーネ・ストラウストラップ (著), Bjarne Stroustrup (著), 柴田 望洋  (翻訳), プログラミング言語C++第4版, 2015.
http://www.amazon.co.jp/dp/4797375957/ref=dra_a_cs_ss_hn_xx_P1300_1000?tag=dradisplay0jp-22&ascsubtag=4126131feab7ab719a957eec4ec4203e_S

VxWorks5.4 プログラマーズガイド
http://www.ing.iac.es/~docs/external/vxworks.old/Programmers-Guide-5.4.pdf

VxWorks5.4 リファレンスマニュアル

Purchase order templates
http://www.sampletemplates.com/business-templates/purchase-order.html

電気通信大学情報基盤センター
https://www.cc.uec.ac.jp/srv/infra/vds.html#vds_mail

国民のための情報セキュリティサイト(総務省)
http://www.soumu.go.jp/main_sosiki/joho_tsusin/security_previous/index.htm

イーステック:
超音波ファントム、音場計測
http://www.eastek.co.jp/pages/supersonic_wave_pages/ultrasound.html

タナック:
超音波ファントム、シリコーン製品
http://www.k-tanac.co.jp/silicone.html

皮膚粘弾性計測装置
https://www.integral.to/product/index.php?cid=1

日本の風景:
http://www.msn.com/ja-jp/travel/news/autumn_02/ss-BBvCP8B?ocid=ems.msn.09162016&fullscreen=true#image=1

0 件のコメント:

コメントを投稿